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Chemical Attack of Halabja by the Iraqi regime
17 March 1988


Moor than 15,000 killed.

We were burnt as newly-grown plants,
In the current of poisonous winds,
And showed our dreadful wounds,
From one side of the world to the other.
But the unjust eyes of the world Were never opened truly towards the oppressed.
The world only confined itself to a false regret,
And once again,
We became a target as heaps and heaps of martyrs,
We were the target of poisonous bombardments,
We were the target of destructive bombs,
And we remained the lonely oppressed ones of the world.
We rose from under tons of debris,
And stood up in the lands of poisonous bombings,
And we kept up standing and fighting,
Believe it,
you people of tomorrow,
Believe such a history and learn a lesson,
Learn how to fight oppression in this way.
By Kamal Najmaddin


Geography of the town of Halabja
City of Halabja, with a population of about 105,000 is in the province of Sulaimanya, 260 kilometers north-east of the city of Baghdad. It is surrounded by the heights of Suran, Balambu, Shireh-roudi and Shaghan in the north, south and east.The lake of the dam of Darbandikhan is to the west of this town. Halabja which is within 11 kilometers of the nearest East Kurdistan 0r Iranian borderline occupies a green and fertile area covered with forest vegetation.


What happened to Halabja ?
The brutal massacre of the oppressed and innocent people of Halabja began before the sunrise of Friday, 17th of March 1988.
The Iraqi regime committed its most tragic and horrible crime from the beginning of the imposed war until now against the civilian people on Friday, 17th of March. On that day, Halabja was bombarded more than twenty times by Iraqi regime's warplanes with chemical and cluster bombs.
That Friday afternoon, the magnitude of Iraqi crimes became evident. In the streets and alleys of Halabja, corpses piled up over one another. Tens of children, while playing in front of the their houses in the morning, were martyred instantly by cyanide gases.
The innocent children did not even have time to run back home. Some children fell down at the threshold of the door of their houses and never rose again.
A mother who embraced her one-year-old baby, fell down two steps from her house and was martyred. In a 150 meter area in the main street of Halabja, at least fifty women and children were martyred as a result of the deployment of the chemical weapons. A father was sitting over the bodies of his wife and ten of his children in one of the alleys of Halabja and was wailing.
The sound of his wailing touched any cruel human being. The crimes were huge, very huge.
In a Simorgh Van, the corpses of 20 women and children who had been prepared to leave the town and the chemical bombardment of the town had deprived them of this opportunity, made any observer stop and ponder about the depth of the catastrophe. Fatal wounds on the corpses of these innocent people were evident.
The doors of most houses were left open and inside of each house, there were some martyred and wounded people. The enemy had heightened the cruelty and heart-handiness to its peak and took no pity on its own people.
Saddam's crime in the chemical bombardment of Halabja has indeed been unprecedented in the history of the imposed war. Saddam's crime in Halabja can never be compared to the tragedy of the chemical bombardment of Sardasht. In Halabja more than five thousand people were martyred and over ten 10 thousand more people were wounded. Women and children formed 75 percent of the martyrs and wounded of the bloody Friday of Halabja.
Along with Halabja, Khormal, Dojaileh and their surrounding villages were also chemically bombarded frequently but the center of the catastrophe was Halabja.


The Gases Deployed Halabja:
The Iraqi regime, in the chemical bombardment of Halabja and the surrounding towns and villages, has deployed three kinds of chemical gases. According to the findings of Iranian physicians, the mustard, nerve and cyanide gases have been used against civilians in Halabja and its surroundings.

A group of the martyrs of the chemical bomb ardent of Halabja, after inhaling the cyanide gas, were suffocated immediately.

Post-mortem examination of the bodies of the chemical bombarderat of Halabja, has proved that the suffocation of the most of the martyrs has been due to the inhalation of cyanide gas. Copy from kdp


The Repetition of a Crime Several Times
The Iraqi regime signed the 1925 protocol of Geneva of the prohibition of the deployment of the chemical and biological weapons in wars in 1931.

The regulations of the 1972 Convention of Geneva requesting all countries to cease production, completion and conservation of all kinds of chemical and biological weapons and to demolish them and the UN 37/98 resolution emphasizing the necessity of observing the articles and contents of the 1925 protocol and the 1972 Convention of Geneva have also been accepted by the UN member countries including Iraq.

In late April 1987, twenty four villages of Iraq's Kurdistan were targeted by the chemical bombardment These villages were chemically bombarded twice in less than 48 hours. Saber Ahmad Khoshnam, one of the inhabitants of the bombarded villages in Loqmanodulleh Hospital in Tehran on 28th of April 1987, told reporters that the Iraqi warplanes dropped 18 chemical bombs at Sheikh Dassan, Kani Bard, Pasian and Tuteman villages. He said that more than one hundred people of these villages were wounded and that he had witnessed that an entire family in Parsian village lost their sight.

In the course of the chemical bombardment of the late April 1987 of the Iraqi villages, more than 130 innocent villagers were martyred and about five hundred of them were wounded.

The Iraqi regime has deployed chemical weapons against its own people while the UN general secretary's representatives during their visits to Iran in two occasions, prepared detailed reports from the deployment of the chemical weapons against the civilian people and submitted them to the United Nations in reports number S/1 6433 and S/18852 and after the submission of these reports by the general secretary to the Security Council, eventually this council, too, joined those individuals and organizations who condemned Iraq's deployment of chemical weapons. But despite all these condemnations, Baghdad's rulers have continued their crimes.

On August 6, 1999, the Halabja Post Graduate Medical Institute (HMI) was established at four centers in Iraqi Kurdistan to begin to study and treat long-term effects of chemical, biological and radiological weapons on men, women and children.

HMI's genesis followed 15 months' collaboration between the Washington Kurdish Institute (WKI) and Dr. Christine Gosden, a Professor of Medical Genetics (University of Liverpool, UK) researching in fields of Fetal Medicine and Cancer. Working with  initial grants from the US State Department and UK Department for International Development, WKI has also received support from the Swiss Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs, several international humanitarian organizations, and Washington area philanthropist Abe Pollin.

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